The Determination of methane and other hydrocarbon gases in water, 1988.



Publisher: H.M.S.O. in London

Written in English
Published: Pages: 19 Downloads: 504
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Subjects:

  • Water quality -- Measurement.,
  • Methane -- Analysis.,
  • Hydrocarbons -- Analysis.

Edition Notes

SeriesMethods for the examination of waters and associated materials
ContributionsGreat Britain. Standing Committee of Analysts.
Classifications
LC ClassificationsTD427.H93 D465 1988
The Physical Object
Pagination19 p. :
Number of Pages19
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL2259867M
ISBN 100117521280
LC Control Number89141023

  The bacteria that typically consume methane, the primary component of natural gas, The organisms that consume ethane and propane, the other major components of natural gas, Asper V. Magnitude and oxidation potential of hydrocarbon gases released from the BP oil well blowout. Nat Geosci. ; – calculating the hydrocarbon-in-place volume of a condensate reservoir to help estimate the hydrocarbon pore volume for potential CO 2 sequestration. Gas and gas-condensate reservoirs are compositionally distinguished from oil reservoirs by the predominance of lighter hydrocarbons, such as methane (60 to 95 percent) and ethane (4 to 8 percent). Ethane (/ ˈ ɛ θ eɪ n / or / ˈ iː θ eɪ n /) is an organic chemical compound with chemical formula C 2 H standard temperature and pressure, ethane is a colorless, odorless many hydrocarbons, ethane is isolated on an industrial scale from natural gas and as a petrochemical by-product of petroleum chief use is as feedstock for ethylene production. Fossil fuels like natural gas, oil, and coal play a major role for the production of energy and commodity chemicals and will continue to do so in the near future. Among them, natural gas, mainly consisting of methane, will become the most important hydrocarbon source owing to its larger reserves and environmentally friendly nature compared to oil and coal.

hydrocarbon gases, largely methane (C 1), may be generated in signifi-cant quantities in sediment, either under near-surface conditions by bacterial action (Claypool and Kaplan, ) or at greater depths by thermochemical action (Schoell, ). Biogenic gas (microbial methane. You can write a book review and share your experiences. Other readers will always be interested in your opinion of the books you've read. Whether you've loved the book or not, if you give your honest and detailed thoughts then people will find new books that are right for them. A thorough understanding of hydrocarbon-water systems A necessary because water is present in all steps of hydrocarbon gas handling processes. More experimental investigations have been reported for the formation of gas hydrates and gas water content than the determination of the solubility of hydrocarbon mixtures in water. energy when in excess or off-peak to form syn-gas, which can be a precursor to many other liquid fuels or to generate a light chain hydrocarbon such as methanol. Next, a few pathways for conversion of syn-gas are investigated for producing long-chain hydrocarbons such as Fischer-Tropsch diesel is discussed. The CO 2.

The main current chemical usage of methane is the production of synthesis gas (Syngas), H2 and CO via Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) of natural gas. Synthesis gas is then converted into methanol, oxo-alcohols, ammonia and hydrocarbons. Methylhalogenides (e.g. methylchloride), HCN and acetylene are also produced from methane. Chemicals. It comprises more than 99% of the gas in gas hydrates, with few other natural gases, like ethane, and occasionally propane. Though the term "methane hydrate," rather than gas hydrate is technically reserved for hydrates with greater than % of their contents as methane, the terms herein will be used interchangeably unless there is a specific. As nouns the difference between hydrocarbon and methane is that hydrocarbon is (organic chemistry) a compound consisting only of carbon and hydrogen atoms while methane is (organic compound|uncountable) the simplest aliphatic hydrocarbon, ch 4, being a constituent of natural gas.   Looking as ice they consist of gas and water where the molecules of hydrate-forming gas (e.g., Ar, CH 4, C 2 H 6, C 3 H 8, i-C 4 H 10, Cl, CO, CO 2, He, H 2 S, N 2, etc.) are squeezed under the pressure of 25 MPa and more into the interstices of the water (ice) crystalline cage without any chemical bonding between molecules of water and gas.

The Determination of methane and other hydrocarbon gases in water, 1988. Download PDF EPUB FB2

Get this from a library. The Determination of methane and other hydrocarbon gases in water, [Great Britain. Standing Committee of Analysts.;]. 1 Introduction Determinands Methane and other hydrocarbon gases can occur in water due to geochemical sources, microbial activity or leakage from installations.

In theory, aqueous concentrations of methane as low as 1 mg 1' can give rise to explosion risks in. Methods for the Examination of Waters and Associated Materials - The Determination of Methane and Other Hydrocarbon Gases in Water is part of the Occupational Health & Safety Information Service's online subscription.

Bringing you a comprehensive selection of legislation, regulations, guidance, standards, including BSI and best practice which is updated daily, you can find documents.

Experimental data for the 1988. book content of a hydrocarbon gas mixture (94% methane + 4% ethane + 2% n-butane) have been generated at a temperature range of.

METHANE AND OTHER HYDROCARBON GASES IN MARINE SEDIMENT. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane: Progress with an Unknown Process Model simulation of months of permanent snow cover if greenhouse-gas concentrations today were as low as those predicted by the early-anthropogenic hypothesis (adapted Cited by: Three methods for the determination of the light hydrocarbon gases methane, ethane, ethene, propane, propene, butane, 2-methylpropane and butenes in coastal sea water are described.

The first two methods are based on manual equilibration of the headspace vapours in glass vessels, followed by injection into the gas. Hydrocarbon gases (methane, ethane, ethene, propane, propene, isobutane and n -butane) are present in low concentrations in the top two meters of sediment from the shelf, slope and basin of the.

A major uncertainty in the sources of atmospheric methane is the role of geologic seepage from petroleum-bearing sedimentary basins. Hydrocarbon seeps located onshore, shallow offshore, and coastal areas can play a major role.

Methane released by deep ocean seeps typically does not reach the atmosphere. Here, we provide evidence for a single, large, and sudden expulsion of methane.

gases in Devonian organic‐rich shales and sandstones at depth (> m) in the northern Appalachian Basin have a low methane to higher chain hydrocarbon ratio (3‐35 mole%) with high δ. C values of CH. 4 (‐ to –‰). Dissolved gases in shallow groundwaters in Devonian organic‐rich shales along Lake Erie contain.

Clayton, in Encyclopedia of Geology, Hydrocarbon Gases. Natural hydrocarbon gases can be either ‘biogenic’ (arising from bacterial processes, usually during early diagenesis) or ‘thermogenic’ (resulting from the effects of heat on oil or kerogen) in origin.

Biogenic (or bacterial) gases are formed in organic-rich sediments during diagenesis by a specialized group of bacteria. Determination of cation exchange capacity and exchangeable cations (including water soluble ions) in soils, related materials and sewage sludge Gas chromatography.

An essay review The determination of alkali extractable organic matter in. After methane, ethane (C 2 H 6) is the next simplest hydrocarbon.

And like methane, ethane is one of those materials that people only think of as a gas, but like methane (and indeed every other gas) given cold enough conditions ethane will freeze to a solid.

TM is a rural site and is more distant to the source region than TT and this resulted in higher ethane/ethyne ratios at TM than at TT. The well matched other hydrocarbon/ethyne ratios indicate that these hydrocarbons shared common or similar sources.

In the atmosphere of TT, very high levels of ethene ( ppbv) and ethyne ( ppbv) were. J.W. Dacey, H.J. Zemmelink, in Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences (Second Edition), Nonmethane Hydrocarbons.

Nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) are important reactive gases in the atmosphere since they provide a sink for hydroxyl radicals and play key roles in the production and destruction of ozone in the troposphere.

NMHCs generally refer to the C 2 –C 4 series, notably ethane, ethene. of methane in water, it was mostly an academic question, or • Affected by other gases in the water.

Sampling Procedures 2 Phase Method • To adequately assess the gas concentration in water that is saturated at depth, it is necessary to either maintain the water at pressure to •Impermeable to hydrocarbon gases.

The sources of methane and other hydrocarbon gases in residual gas in sediments can be inferred from molecular ratios and from isotopic compositions. At the three Cape Fear Diapir sites (Sites, and ), the residual methane apparently is controlled by the availability of sulfate, as discussed earlier.

Water saturation (S w) determination is the most challenging of petrophysical calculations and is used to quantify its more important complement, the hydrocarbon saturation (1 – S w).Complexities arise because there are a number of independent approaches that can be used to calculate S complication is that often, if not typically, these different approaches lead to.

The hydrate disappearance conditions (H − L w − V → L w − V transition) in the water–methane–water‐soluble hydrocarbon system were measured and modeled. The hydrocarbons in the experiments are tetrahydrofuran (THF), 1,3‐dioxolane and tetrahydropyran, and THF, 1,3‐dioxolane and acetone in the modeling study.

This test method covers the determination of the dissolved gases methane, ethane, ethylene, and propane in drinking, waste, and ground waters, including domestic wells whether naturally occurring or resulting from commercial activities, or both.

This test method has an analytical range from 10 µg/L to 11 µg/L for methane, and 10 µg/L to µg/L for ethane, ethylene, and propane. Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a.

simplest hydrocarbon molecule, C H 4, consists of a carbon atom bonded to four hydrogen atoms. This substance, called methane, is an excellent fuel and is the main component of natural gas, as shown in Figure Reading Check Name two uses of methane or natural gas in your home or community.

14 Lead 82 Pb Germanium 32 Ge Tin The conversion of methane to ethane and ethylene or C 2 hydrocarbons via oxidative methane coupling (OMC, 2CH 4 + 1/2O 2 → C 2 H 6 + H 2 O) is a reaction that in principle offers a more energetically favorable pathway.

The search for a catalyst for OMC was the subject of intensive research in the s–s, and the author of this Guest. Raw natural gas is found in production, gathering sites, and inlets to gas-processing plants characterized by potentially high levels of water (H 2 O), carbon dioxide (CO 2), hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), and heavy hydrocarbons.

Gas-conditioning plants and skids are normally used to remove H 2 O, CO 2, H 2 S, and other contaminants. Typical. When using helium as a carrier gas, FID response is quite uniform for most hydrocarbon compounds, but the response can vary considerably for other types of organic compounds.

Apparatus Direct Air Sampling (Figure 1) Sample manifold or sample inlet line - to bring sample air into the analytical system. Ethylene and methane in the upper water column of the subtropical Atlantic.

Biogeochemistry44 (1), DOI: /BF Wendy J. Broadgate, Peter S. Liss, Stuart A. Penkett. Seasonal emissions of isoprene and other reactive hydrocarbon gases. This paper illustrates a method for determining trace amounts of CO, CH4 and CO2 with the detection limit ofand microg/l, respectively, in refinery hydrogen gases or in air.

A simple. Chemical properties of methane. Methane is lighter than air, having a specific gravity of It is only slightly soluble in water.

It burns readily in air, forming carbon dioxide and water vapour; the flame is pale, slightly luminous, and very hot. The boiling point of methane is − °C (− °F) and the melting point is − °C (− °F).

Methane gas is released from the coal when water is removed by pumping (Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission and Bureau of Land Management, ). When the hydrostatic pressure has been reduced by pumping water from the coal bed, the methane gas flows from the coal into the well bore.

Because methane gas is lighter than air. the analysis of permanent gases, hydrocarbons, and many other gases. The single-filament flow-switching design eliminates the need for a refer-ence column.

This unique design alternately exposes the filament to column effluent and refer-ence flows at a frequency of 10 Hz. Digital process-ing is used throughout. See Figure 3 for a. Methane (US: / ˈ m ɛ θ eɪ n / or UK: / ˈ m iː θ eɪ n /) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula CH 4 (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).It is a group hydride and the simplest alkane, and is the main constituent of natural relative abundance of methane on Earth makes it an economically attractive fuel, although capturing and storing it poses technical.

Gas hydrate is an ice-like substance that forms at low temperature and high pressure when adequate amounts of water and gases such as carbon dioxide or methane and higher-order hydrocarbon gases are present ().Because 1 m 3 of solid hydrate typically contains m 3 of gas at standard temperature and pressure (STP), 2 large volumes of natural gas may be stored efficiently in this form (Sloan.Following in the mids, scientists began assigning a microbial origin to volatile hydrocarbon gas other than methane.

Since these earliest reports, biogenic methane and other volatile hydrocarbons have been measured in terrestrial, marine and lacustrine environments.concentration of methane (∼25 to 35mg/L, depending on water temperature and elevation).

However, methane commonly occurs with carbon dioxide and other gases, which also exert gas pressure in groundwater. For example, methanogenesis produces equal molar concen-trations of methane and carbon dioxide (Drever ).